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Participants attended 1 clinic visit and completed 4 record-assisted telephone 24-hour dietary recall interviews over an 11-day period.

Y.); Division of Preventive Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham (J. S.); Stanford Prevention Center, School of Medicine, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA (C. G.); and National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (C. The dietary assessment procedures were designed to allow quantification of the amount and proportion of sodium from the following sources: (1) salt added to food at the table; (2) salt added to food in home food preparation; (3) sodium from home tap water consumed as a beverage; (4) sodium that is inherent to food; (5) sodium that is added to food in processing outside the home; and (6) sodium from dietary supplements and nonprescription antacids.

From Division of Epidemiology and Community Health, School of Public Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis (L. Preaddressed postage-paid envelopes were provided for mailing the duplicate salt samples to the study center.

From Division of Epidemiology and Community Health, School of Public Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis (L. If they responded affirmatively to 1 or 2 of these questions, they were instructed to bring a sample of their home tap water to their clinic visit using a study provided collection kit. In addition, they were asked if their tap water was softened or if it was filtered by a home filtration system. A variety of study-specific procedures were used during recall collection and processing to ensure that the sources of sodium of interest in this study could be ascertained. S.); Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA (M. Nutrition Data System for Research software (developed by the Nutrition Coordinating Center, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis) was used for the administration and analysis of the recalls. From Division of Epidemiology and Community Health, School of Public Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis (L. Recruitment and data collection activities were conducted by the University of Alabama at Birmingham, Stanford University, and the University of Minnesota–Twin Cities.

Between December 2013 and December 2014, a convenience sample of 450 adults was recruited from 3 geographic locations: Birmingham, AL (n=150); Palo Alto, CA (n=150); and the Minneapolis–St. We recruited into the study equal numbers of women and men from each of 4 race/ethnic groups (blacks, Asians, Hispanics, and non-Hispanic whites).

Height was measured with a wall-mounted stadiometer, and weight was measured with a digital scale.

Y.); Division of Preventive Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham (J. S.); Stanford Prevention Center, School of Medicine, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA (C. G.); and National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (C. At the clinic visit, tap water samples were collected from participants as appropriate, and a questionnaire was administered to obtain information about demographics, smoking, and general health.

From Division of Epidemiology and Community Health, School of Public Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis (L. The duplicate sample data were added to the dietary recall records following a detailed set of data calculation and entry rules.

Sodium from salt added to food at the table and in home food preparation was calculated from data from the duplicate salt samples.

From Division of Epidemiology and Community Health, School of Public Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis (L. All participants provided written informed consent. The institutional review board at each participating institution and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reviewed and approved the study procedures.