According to the nationality code, unlike Algerian men, Algerian women are permitted to confer citizenship on their children only if the father is unknown or stateless or if the child is born to an Algerian mother and a foreign father who was born in Algeria.
The family code discriminates against women in matters of marriage, divorce, inheritance, and child custody and guardianship.
Many Islamist fighters surrendered following the government's introduction of the "Civil Harmony" law in 1999 that granted leniency to rebels who renounced violence.
The country's legal system is mostly founded on French legislation, while nationality, citizenship, and the family code are based on the country's interpretation of Shari'a (Islamic law).The government has made significant efforts to bring legislation in line with international conventions on human rights and women's rights in the public sphere, but as far as the application of texts is concerned, these efforts are largely inadequate.Algeria was a virtual one-party regime until the ruling National Liberation Front (FLN) permitted the formation of independent political parties in 1989.This opening allowed the Islamic Salvation Front (FIS), a fundamentalist party, to position itself to win the national elections in 1992.Many citizens continue to be victims of arbitrary decisions by authorities.
Algerian women are subject to the family code, a retrograde and patriarchal interpretation of Islamic law passed in 1984 by the Popular National Assembly, under the pressure of religious and conservative representatives.According to family law, a wife has a legal obligation to obey her husband.A husband can freely divorce his wife without justification, but a wife must meet very specific conditions in order to initiate a divorce.In response, the army cancelled the elections and banned the FIS, triggering the start of a bloody civil war between armed groups of Islamist extremists and the government that has claimed more than 100,000 lives.Although radical groups have been responsible for the majority of the civil war massacres and assassinations, international human rights organizations have accused Algerian security forces of being responsible for thousands of "disappearances." Thousands of Algerian women who refuse to follow FIS calls for the Islamization of Algerian society have also faced violence, displacement, and exile.Algeria depends heavily on its oil and natural gas reserves.