However, if the neck fold is abnormally thickened it is very suspicious for a finding of Down Syndrome or another fetal abnormality.
to calculate a “risk score” for Down Syndrome/associated anomalies. It cannot diagnose a problem, only point out that a problem MAY BE there.The mother must have a definitive test ( amnio or CVS) which actually examines the chromosomes of the fetus before anyone can say for sure that there is truly a problem with the baby.Can usually detect abnormalities in the brain, heart, bones (including spine) , facial features, kidneys, stomach, liver, genitals.Could not see an internal problem, like cleft palate.(*1E) Secondary Cesarean Section = mother has already had a previous Cesarean delivery, and this is a repeat Cesarean birth. The mother has had a previous Cesarean delivery but has now delivered vaginally.
There is a small amount of risk (less than 1%) that the old surgical scar on the uterus will rupture when a VBAC is attempted, so mothers who wish to attempt a VBAC must understand the risks and sign an “informed consent” that shows they are aware of the risks/benefits. If a woman has had a previous Cesarean birth and wants to have a VBAC, she is said to be undergoing a “trial of labor” when her contractions start. A cut made with surgical scissors from the opening of the vagina straight back toward the rectum just before the birth.She had 2 abortions or miscarriages, and surviving children include 2 full-term pregnancies and one premie which survived.Since the last number indicates she has 4 living kids, then you have to figure that one of the pregnancies was a twin pregnancy and both the babies survived.There are 4 “degrees” of lacerations: A first degree laceration 1E is minor and does not involve muscle.A second degree laceration 2E is equivalent to a median episiotomy, and does involve some muscle. Usually seen in association with: P = the outcome of those pregnancies.Nuchal translucency = sonogram at 11 – 13 weeks of gestation which measures the thickness of the fold of the neck on the back of the fetus.