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In South-East Asia, HIV prevalence among migrants to Thailand from neighbouring countries is up to four times higher than among the general population.39 The highest prevalence among migrants in Thailand was found in the fishing industry, with rates of 2% among fishermen and 2.3% among fishery workers, compared to HIV prevalence of 1.1% and 0.74% among factory workers and farm workers, respectively.40 In a behavioural survey conducted in 24 provinces among migrant workers aged 15-49, 21.6% of male workers had sex with more than one partner in the previous year compared with 4.6% female workers.

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Overall, it found young female sex workers to be the least likely to test.46 New approaches have been introduced to increase access to and demand for HTC among key affected populations, including the following: One such programme is the USAID and PEPFAR-funded LINKAGES programme.

This is a five-year project which started in 2015 and is being implemented in Thailand by FHI 360 and local community based organisations.

KEY POINTS:• Thailand has one of the largest HIV prevalences in Asia and the Pacific, accounting for 9% of the region’s total HIV population.

• Although the epidemic is in decline, prevalence remain high among key affected groups.• Thailand is the first country to effectively eliminate mother to child transmissions, with a transmission rate of less than 2%.

A transmission rate of 2% or below is considered by the World Health Organization (WHO) as effectively eliminating MTCT of HIV.53 Thailand is the first country in the Asia Pacific region to reach this important milestone.54 In 2016, 95% of Thai and non‐Thai pregnant women living with HIV received antiretroviral drugs to reduce the risk of MTCT.55 80% of infants born to HIV‐positive women were tested for HIV within two months of birth.56 Despite these successes, areas for improvement include: Thailand provides antiretroviral treatment (ART) for free as part of the country’s universal health insurance scheme.58.

It is one of only two countries in Asia and the Pacific that has more than 50% of people living with HIV on ART, the other being Cambodia.LINKAGES sees members from key populations (known as ‘peer mobilisers’) reach out to their peers in order to link them to HTC services.Those who test positive for HIV are then supported by their peers to access treatment and care.• Thailand hopes to be one of the first countries to end aids by 2030, however to achieve this more must be done to target young people and key affected populations.Explore this page to read more about populations most affected by HIV in Thailand, HIV testing and counselling programmes, HIV prevention programmes, antiretroviral treatment availability, barriers to prevention and the way forward for Thailand.Users are charged US$ 1 a day for their supply of pills, along with counselling and health evaluations.19 In Thailand, HIV prevalence is far greater among male sex workers than female.