What is now Uzbekistan was in ancient times part of the predominantly Persian-speaking region of Transoxiana, with cities such as Samarkand growing rich from the Silk Road.
Much of the water was and continues to be used for the irrigation of cotton fields, a crop requiring a large amount of water to grow.Due to the Aral Sea problem, high salinity and contamination of the soil with heavy elements are especially widespread in Karakalpakstan, the region of Uzbekistan adjacent to the Aral Sea.Uzbekistan has a rich and diverse natural environment.However, decades of questionable Soviet policies in pursuit of greater cotton production have resulted in a catastrophic scenario with the agricultural industry being the main contributor to the pollution and devastation of both air and water in the country.In 1924, the constituent republic of the Soviet Union known as the Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic (Uzbek SSR) was created.
Following the breakup of the Soviet Union, it declared independence as the Republic of Uzbekistan on 31 August 1991 (officially celebrated the following day).
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Uzbekistan's economy relies mainly on commodity production, including cotton, gold, uranium, and natural gas.
Despite the declared objective of transition to a market economy, its government continues to maintain economic controls which deter foreign investment and imports in favour of domestic "import substitution".
Located in Central Asia, it is a secular, unitary constitutional republic, comprising 12 provinces, one autonomous republic, and a capital city.